Assessment of creative ability is undertaken using observation, interview, activity-based assessments (task assessments), and a social evaluative group (de Witt 2005) – see the Assessment & Treatment page.
The Creative Participation assessment tool (CPA) is used for recording assessment information. The tool was devised by Dain van der Reyden, occupational therapist and expert in the VdTMoCA in South Africa. The tool has been extensively and effectively used by large numbers of occupational therapists in South Africa, with patients/clients across a broad range of settings and fields of practice. The tool is called ‘creative participation’ because occupational therapists assess a client’s creative participation (occupational performance / ‘doing’) in order to identify his/her level of creative ability.
The CPA has been researched and found it to be reliable and valid for use in the assessment of people with schizophrenia (Castelijn & Smit 2001). The tool was also included in a study to identify that the levels of creative ability exist (Casteleijn 2015).
The tool consists of a table. The first column lists the components of creative ability as items for assessment. Columns 2-7 represent the first seven levels of creative ability. In each column there are brief descriptors of the components as they manifest in each level of creative ability. The descriptors do not provide full description of the components as they are seen in clients at each level – they serve as reminders / prompts to therapists who are required to have knowledge and understanding of each of the levels of creative ability plus knowledge and understanding of the occupational performance (creative ability) components. Based on this knowledge, the occupational therapist selects the descriptors that best represent the client using clinical reasoning.
Having selected a descriptor for each component of creative ability, the number of descriptors in each column is counted and the total identified. The column with the highest number of selected descriptors indicates the client’s overall level of creative ability. Reasoning is needed to identify the overall level when there is a 50-50 split between two levels. Occupational therapists will also identify the client’s level of creative ability in each occupational performance area, but this is a task undertaken separately – the purpose of the ‘Creative Participation’ tool is to bring all of the therapists’ assessment knowledge together and use that to identify the client’s overall level, and subsequently to know what to focus on in treatment.
The tool also asks the therapist to identify at which phase the client is, for the assessed level. The phase indicates how far through the level the client is situated i.e. at the beginning of the level when the client requires a lot of therapist in-put to be enabled to participate in activity and occupation (therapist-directed phase), or further into the level whereby the client has gained a degree of mastery of activity participation and therefore is less dependent on the therapist/others (patient-directed phase), or is progressing into the next level of creative ability (transitional phase). To be able to identify the phase provides the therapist with greater detail of a client’s ability and informs the grading of therapist input for enabling the client.
The tool is completed when relevant or necessary. Repeated uses of the tool will provide a measure. For guidance on use of the CPA tool, see the VdTMoCA Foundation (UK) Position Statement no. 1 on the Assessment and Treatment page and also available on the Publications page.
Adapted forms not recommended
The CPA tested as valid and reliable by Casteleijn & Smit (2002) is the only tool recommended for use. Any adapted tools are not established as valid and reliable and therefore not recommended. A shortened version of the CPA has been in circulation - it only contains levels Self-differentiation to Imitative Participation. It is recommended that this is withdrawn from circulation. For information on how to obtain the correct CPS form, contact email@example.com
Activity Participation Outcome Measure (APOM)
The APOM is a measure of activity participation which has been developed based on the levels of creative ability.
The APOM is an outcome measure specifically designed for occupational therapists in mental health settings and based on the Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA). The APOM covers eight domains of activity participation (see graph).
Each of these domains consists of several items. An occupational therapist will assess or rate a mental health care user on these items using a 18 point scale. The scale is based on the levels of Creative Ability as described by Vona du Toit. It is a web-based application.
OTs working with the VdTMoCA in neuro or physical fields might also find the outcome measure helpful but it has not yet been validated for those groups. OTs are welcome to attend training to venture research in this direction.
See journal articles by Casteleijn and conference presentations - see
The APOM is available following formal training.
Knowledge about the VdT Model of Creative Ability and how to undertake the Creative Participation Assessment is vital for the use of the APOM.
Contact firstname.lastname@example.org with enquiries.
The Functional Levels Outcome Measure
The FLOM, (See image left) previously called the Therapeutic Functional Levels Assessment (TFLA) has been used in long term institutions with large numbers of patients (500+).
It is based on the levels of Creative Ability as described in the Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA).
There are 10 items in the FLOM namely mental illness, orientation, self-care, appearance, continence, social behaviour, activity participation, domestic activity, responsibility and employment potential.
Each item consist of a set of questions for the first five levels of CA, Level 1 - Tone, Level 2 – Self differentiation, Level 3 – Intentional Explorative action, Level 4 – Norm directed action and Level 5 – norm compliance action.
A clinician answers the question with a yes/no and the level with the most number of yes answers will be the level of the item.
A score of 1 to 5 is allocated for each item, 1 being the lowest level of Tone and 5 the highest level of Imitative participation.